H.-J. Feuerborn, European Coal Combustion Products Association, Essen, Germany

 In Europe, more than 145 million tonnes of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) are annually produced during coal combustion in power plants. Due to the huge amount and constant qualities the utilisation of CCPs as replacement for natural occurring raw and construction materials was established in several countries. The production and also the utilisation of CCPs in Europe is influenced by political decisions, environmental regulations and market development.

The most important political decisions influencing the power plant operation are the revised Industrial Emission Directive focussing effective combustion and reduced emission limit values and the initiatives and CO2 reduction. This results in shutdown or retrofit of existing and construction of new power plants. This also results in the increased use of biomass for co-combustion in coal-fired power plants, increased use of biomass in FBC- and dry-bottom boilers, increased production by wind, solar-, hydropower and others. On the other hand, fossil fired production is reduced and operated more flexible.