V. Kumar, Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of India, New Dehli, India

 Fly ash a residue of burning of coal / lignite in thermal power plant has traditionally been considered as a waste product.  Over last few decades, in spite of fly ash being proved and demonstrated as a useful material for many applications, it’s acceptance for large scale utilization has taken considerable time. Complexities of technology development, proving, transfer, resolution of mind sets of pre-conceived ideas, setting up of standards, specifications and guidelines including work manuals, etc. need to be addressed with scientific and systematic approach as well as full cognigence of human psychology and socio-economic culture. Perseverance and results of scientific evaluation play critical role. Indian experience has been quite satisfying.  Fly ash utilization has increased from 1 Mn.T/year during 1994 to 100 Mn.T/year during 2011, primarily as an out come of concerted efforts under Fly Ash Mission-India.