Nature protection technologies

8.4. Small HPPs

Part 8. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

8.4. Small HPPs

8.4.1. Methods of small HPPs construction

V.А. Vasilyev, B.V. Tarnizhevskiy, ОJSCENIN

 Constant improvement of technology of hydro turbogenerators from micro size (to 100 kW) to small ones (to 5 MW) results in growth of attractiveness of small and micro HPPs for electricity generation.

Small and microHPPs, depending on ways of their construction, are divided into reservoired power plants, derivational and channel ones which, in their turn, can be stationary or portable.

Reservoired small and micro power plants differ from large hydro power plants only by scales of hydro constructions and capacity.

Part 8. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

8.4. Small HPPs

8.4.2. Hydroturbine equipment

V.А. Vasilyev, B.V. Tarnizhevskiy, ОJSCENIN

 At small and microHPPs low-pressure turbines of various designs are used. The widest application received the following:

  • active turbines with the tangential supply of a high-speed stream to the driving wheel, equipped with blades of a special form. In active turbines kinetic energy of the stream is almost completely used;
  • reactive turbines with the axial supply of water to the driving wheel blades. Driving wheel rotation occurs due to drawoff of a pressure drop between the turbine inlet and outlet.

Part 8. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

8.4. Small HPPs

8.4.3. Operation of small and microHPPs

V.А. Vasilyev, B.V. Tarnizhevskiy, ОJSC “ENIN”

 Unlike large reservoired HPPs, small ones don’t practically make negative influence on environment. Among the factors, complicating their operation, seasonal instability of a drain, and also ice formation, prevention from damages during the ice drift, etc. are of the greatest importance.

In Russia there are tens of companies, producing separate components or complete equipment for small and microHPPs.

Part 8. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

8.4. Small hydro power plants

8.4.4. Overview of development of small GPPs as of 2014

М.P. Rogankov, E.E. Мikushevitch, V.M. Mikushevitch, Ecopolis ltd, Мoscow, Russia

 In Russia all hydro power plants (HPPs) are referred to renewables, but small hydro and non-conventional are those with capacity less than 30 МWe. The word “non-conventional”, taken from the national standards GOST R 54100-2010, GOST R 51238-98, etc., is not absolutely correct for small HPPs; by the middle of XX century in the former USSR some 6600 small HPPs were in operation, later on almost all of them were dismantled. We can speak of the “second birth” of small hydro, which happened in the world and in our country during the last 20 years. Big hydro for a long time is a separate branch and in this article only small HPPs are considered.