Nature protection technologies

3.7. Analytics

Part 3. ASH AND SLAG HANDLING

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3.7.1. Аbout a system approach for solution of THE problem on ash and slag from TPPs

Ph.D. Putilov V.Y., Ph.D. Putilova I.V. MPEI(TU)

In the paper the basic issues concerning system approach for effective solution of the problem on ash and slag from TPPs in the separate countries and worldwide are observed. They are: regular monitoring of existing and potential commodity market of ash and slag from thermal power plants; constant research of sanitary-and-hygienic properties of ash and slag and restrictions for their use by commodity product manufacture; perfection of normative and legal documents on ash and slag handling; supplying producers and users of ash and slag with information on technological, legal and other questions on beneficial ash and slag handling in view of the world experience 

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3.7.2. Challenges, opportunities and ways of solving the problem on ashes and slags from TPPs in Russia

V.Y. Putilov, I.V. Putilova, Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Technical University), Russia

Brief estimation of ecological parameters of ash and slag removal systems of thermal power plants (TPPs) in Russia is resulted. Key deficiencies of traditional hydraulic ash and slag removal systems of TPPs are presented. Supervising documents on ash and slag from TPPs, developed by IACEE MPEI are brought. Basic barriers for using ash and slag from TPPs are observed as well as opportunities for raising a level of their beneficial use are resulted.

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3.7.3. Improvement of the legislation of the russian federation in the field of production and consumption waste handling

N.B. Nefedyev, S.G. Psyurnichenko, Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation

 Waste management is a part of activity on environmental protection.

In the Russian Federation a basis of the legislation in the field of production and consumption waste handling make the Federal Law № 89-FZ from June 24, 1998 «About production and consumption wastes» and the Federal Law № 7-FZ from January, 10, 2002 «About environmental protection» together with the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal of 1989 (further – the Basel Convention), ratified by the Federal Law № 49-FZ dated November 25, 1994.

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3.7.4. Coal Ash in Europe – legal and technical requirements for use

H.-J. Feuerborn, ECOBA, European Coal Combustion Products Association, Essen, Germany

 In Europe, coal combustion products (CCPs) are mainly utilised as a replacement for natural materials in the building material industry, in civil engineering, in road construction, for construction work in underground coal mining as well as for recultivation and restoration purposes in open cast mines. The majority of the CCPs are produced to meet certain requirements of standards or other specifications with respect to utilisation in certain areas.

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3.7.5. The Changing CCP Regulatory Environment in the United States

T.H. Adams, D.C. Goss, American Coal Ash Association, Aurora, Colorado, USA

Changing and unpredictable air quality control regulations are having a significant impact on electric utilities in the United States. Proposed federal regulations have been rescinded and then re-implemented. Individual states have proposed their own regulations that may conflict with future federal regulations. A recent large ash spill in Tennessee has raised questions about coal combustion product (CCP) safety, potentially affecting many years of successful beneficial use. The current regulatory uncertainty offers a number of challenges to CCP producers and end users.

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3.7.6. Challenges, Opportunities and ways of solving the problem on ashes from TPP’s in India: A successful mission mode approach

Dr. Vimal Kumar, Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt. of India

Coal has remained the main source of energy (65…75 %) for electric power generation in India. High ash content (about 45 %) of Indian coals along with massive plans to put up additional power stations has increased exponentially the generation of fly ash in India over last two decades and the trend is expected to continue.

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3.7.7. Influence of legislation on utilization of ash from power generating stations – Indian experience

A. K. Mathur, NTPC Ltd., India

 Main fuel for about 53 % of power generation in India is coal which produced 130 million tonne of ash during last year. In order to encourage its gainful utilization, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) issued standards for fly ash as early as 1966. Standards for fly ash based cement were also framed in 1976. NTPC – the major power utility in the country set up a separate Ash Utilization Division during 1991.

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3.7.8. Utilization of coal combastion by-products in Poland

J.J. Hycnar, ECOCOAL Consulting Center, Katowice, Poland

 T. Szczygielski, Polish CCP Union, Szczecin, Poland

In Poland, on the significant effects of the utilization of 80 % of fly ash and slags from combustion of hard coal and lignite, had implementation and observance of the environmental law, principles of free market, tightening of the requirements of work safety and exploitation of coal mines, rules of limiting the use of mineral resources and CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. At the same time the intensive work were carried out on developing and implementing national and European standards for the use of combustion by-products as ingredients and construction products and others.

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3.7.9. FBC ash – production and utilization

J.J. Hycnar, ECOCOAL Consulting Center, Katowice, Poland

 Implementation of fluidized bed technology in utility power plants and CHP plants introduced conditions for effective desulphurization of flue gases and higher efficiencies of thermal processes, allowing at the same time for using also low calorific value waste and biomass besides traditional fuels. Combustion processes occurring in the presence of limestone, at temperatures lower than in pulverized-fuel or layered furnaces, are affecting also the quality of combustion by-products. Resulting FBC ashes differ from the traditional ashes in terms of their chemical and physical properties.

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3.7.10. Impact of new coal combustion technologies on types and character of ash and slag

T. Szczygielski,  Polish CCP Union, Szczecin, Poland

J.J. Hycnar, ECOCOAL Consulting Center, Katowice, Poland

The necessity of cutting CO2 emissions into the atmosphere is strongly impacting development and use of various energy sources, and is becoming a strategy for existence for practically all countries around the world. Coal, until now the cheapest source of thermal and electric energy, but also the most CO2 emitting, requires improvements to existing combustion technologies and development of new ones.

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3.7.11. Formation of competitive advantages of power enterprises by example of using ash and slag from Omsk CHPPs in the market of mineral raw materials and other natural resources

V.R. Shevtsov, JSC “TGC 11”

In the paper the factors forming competitive advantages at entering the market of ash and slag materials from Omsk CHPPs are formulated. The situational estimation of competitiveness of ash and slag materials in the local market is given. Actions for utilizing ash and slag materials within the limits of expansion of a regional raw-material base of the Omsk Region are highlighted.

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3.7.12. The experience of dealing with the problem of thermal power plant ash-and-slag utilization in Siberia

S.I. Kozhemyako, D.V. Bondar, V.R. Shevtsov, OJSC “Regional generation company № 11”

 The paper presents factors and findings of drawing ash-and-slag materials into economic circulation in Siberia on the basis of Omsk combined heat and power plants (CHPs) of OJSC “Regional generation company №11”. Utilization of thermal power plant ash-and-slag in the context of raw material supplies base expansion of the Omsk region was estimated.

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3.7.13. Forming of tpps’ ash-and-slag management system in Siberia

S.I. Kozhemyako, V.R. Shevtsov,Siberian Energy Association, Novosibirsk

D.V. Bondar, JSC “Territory Generation Company № 11”, Novosibirsk

In this paper the analyses of reprocessing and utilization of ash-and-slag mixtures at the generating enterprises that are the members of “Siberian Energy Association” is presented, the forms of cooperation between the participants in terms of increasing the volumes of TPPs’ ash-and-slag wastes utilization and reprocessing in Siberian Federal District are defined 

 

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3.7.14. Experience of Kashirskaya gres in ash and slag utilization

E.V. Eremenko, The Holding Company “Composite”, Moscow, Russia

V.S. Mahotin, Kashirskaya GRES – a branch of the JSC «WGK-1», Kashira town, Russia

A.E. Chumakov,  JSC “INTER RAO EES”, Moscow, Russia

The main problem of the coal-fired power stations is the great volume of ash and slag. Currently stockpiling of slag becomes disadvantageous both from economic and ecological point of view. The problem of the ash and slag treatment is especially complicated in densely populated areas, for example, in the Moscow Region.

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3.7.15. Specific operational expenses for handling ash and slag from thermal power plants

by example of Kashirskaya SDPP

Putilov V.Y., Linkov А.М., MPEI

Fatkullin R.М., JSC “WGC-1”

Konovalov V.K., Torkhunov S.F., Kashirskaya SDPP – branch of the JSC “WGC-1”

 Ashes and slags from thermal power plants (TPPs) are high on the list on production volume among other by-products from power generation. Increase in a coal share in the fuel balance of the Russian TPPs is in the long term predicted, including the respective raise of ash and slag production volumes, that results in deterioration of ecological conditions in a zone of TPP impact. In this connection there is a question on reconstruction of ash and slag removal systems in order to meet their ecological and economic characteristics.

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3.7.16. Impact of political decisions on production and quality of CCPs in Europe

H.-J. Feuerborn, European Coal Combustion Products Association, Essen, Germany

 Coal is a major fuel for energy and steam production in European coal-fired power plants. Political decision regarding clean coal technology led to modifications in power plant technology and installations of de-NOx and de-SOx system, those regarding subsidization of national coal mining to increased use of imported coal, those to reduce CO2 emissions to increased use of biomass and production by renewable systems (wind-, solar-, hydropower). The later one does not only effects power producers but also producers of energy intensive production processes, e.g. cement industry, glass industry. After the nuclear accident in Fukushima in April 2011 the future of nuclear power in national energy plans was again discussed and led to different political decisions in the member states, e.g. the stop of nuclear power in Germany.

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3.7.17. New in the state policy of the RF in the field of production and consumption waste handling

K.Y. Kushnir, N.B. Nefedyev, S.G. Psyurnichenko, Ministry of Natural Resources of the RF, Moscow, Russia

 Over the last few years in the Russian Federation the amount of wastes produced has steadily increased, but a share of their involvement in the economic turnover as a percentage of the produced wastes remained insufficient, and in some groups of wastes it was low and even very low.

Currently, the main sector of economic activity is mining industry, which mainly focuses on production and extraction of mineral resources, and their primary processing in order to obtain raw materials, suitable for production of final products. This process is accompanied by formation and accumulation of wastes in the form of waste rock, slag, sludge, etc. By that, a share of wastes from mining and processing industries (3,2 billion tons) is about 70% of the total amount of industrial wastes, or slightly below 70% of the total amount of wastes produced in Russia annually

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3.7.18. Resolution of complex issues of fly ash utilization: successful case study of India

V. Kumar, Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of India, New Dehli, India

 Fly ash a residue of burning of coal / lignite in thermal power plant has traditionally been considered as a waste product.  Over last few decades, in spite of fly ash being proved and demonstrated as a useful material for many applications, it’s acceptance for large scale utilization has taken considerable time. Complexities of technology development, proving, transfer, resolution of mind sets of pre-conceived ideas, setting up of standards, specifications and guidelines including work manuals, etc. need to be addressed with scientific and systematic approach as well as full cognigence of human psychology and socio-economic culture. Perseverance and results of scientific evaluation play critical role. Indian experience has been quite satisfying.  Fly ash utilization has increased from 1 Mn.T/year during 1994 to 100 Mn.T/year during 2011, primarily as an out come of concerted efforts under Fly Ash Mission-India.

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3.7.19. A role and a place of scientific and educational institutions in solution of coal ash handling problems in Russia

V.Y. Putilov, I.V. Putilova, Е.A. Malikova, National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute”, Moscow, Russia

 Due to the increased technological impact on environment, a coal ash handling problem becomes more acute, and it’s both a regional and a global one. At many Russian thermal power plants (TPPs) ash lagoons are close to their design filling, forcing power utilities to address the problem of coal ash handling.

Without the involvement of relevant scientific organizations, engaged in a system solution to coal ash handling problems, the staff of power plants and energy companies is not able to cope with the problem. Such organizations should be involved in activity at all phases of the project implementation, starting from development of the Technical Enquiry for running tender procedures for reconstruction of the existing and creation of the new ash removal systems (ARSs) at TPPs. Compulsory expertise of technical solutions at all phases of the project implementation is to be entered into the practice.

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3.7.20. Forming a system of management of by-products from coal-fired thermal power plants

S.I. Kozhemyako, V.R. Shevtsov, OJSC "TGC-11", Novosibirsk, Russia

 Management system of coal TPPs side production is being developed to organize ash-and-slag reprocessing and usage, it is a complex system with multi functional structure. Formation of this system includes detailed working out of every strategic direction, some of which resolve prevention of the planned damage others can resolve liquidation of accumulated ecological damage in a cost saving manner.

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