Nature protection technologies

6.3. Heat and electricity supply plants of small capacity

Part 6. DVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND POWER INSTALLATIONS FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

6.3. Heat and power supply units of low capacity

6.3.1. General characteristic of district heating in Russia and analysis of opportunities of using the small CHPPs instead of the heating boiler-houses

Ilyin Е.T. CJSC “Complex energy systems”

Till now power sector of our country was developed due to commissioning of up-to-date steam turbine units having higher initial steam parameters and higher rated capacity. Increase in initial parameters yielded perfection of thermodynamic cycle and decrease in relative fuel consumption. Wide application of combined heat and power plants is also a substantial factor for efficiency increase.

Part 6. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND POWER INSTALLATIONS FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

6.3. Heat and power supply units of low capacity 

6.3.2. Basic principles of choosing the unit capacity at small cogeneration heat power plants

Ilyin Е.T. CJSC “Complex energy systems”

The basic principles are as follows:

1. Provision of turbine operation only in the combined cycle mode during the whole calendar year.

2. Choosing only backpressure steam turbines as they provide a maximum efficiency of fuel heat utilization. Such turbines are significantly cheaper than the ones with condensers. Besides, application of backpressure turbines results in significant reduction of costs for technical water supply system construction, and also auxiliary needs as in this case there are no circulation pumps.

 

Part 6. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND POWER INSTALLATIONS FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

6.3. Heat and power supply units of low capacity

6.3.3. Gas turbine building-up of water heating boilers and installation at low capacity thermal power plants

Ilyin Е.T. CJSC “Complex energy systems”

The conducted studies showed that a heating load of a heat supply boiler-house, operating in a hot water supply mode makes only 14…37% of the installed capacity, depending on climate conditions of the boiler-house location. Therefore, for building up of heating boiler-houses GT of medium and low capacity are required in order to provide operation of the GTU with complete utilization of exhaust gas heat.

Part 6. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND POWER INSTALLATIONS FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

6.3. Heat and power supply units of low capacity

6.3.4. Changes in heat load diagrams within a year and their influence on a choice of equipment of small CHPPs

Ilyin Е.T. CJSC “Complex energy systems”

Statistical processing of change in the average daily ambient air temperature within a year and change in the correspondent heat demand was conducted for preliminary analyses of thermal capacity, ambient air temperatures and assessment of power generation.

Part 6. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND POWER INSTALLATIONS FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

6.3. Heat and power supply units of low capacity

6.3.5. Application of gas piston units for thermal and electric power generation

Ilyin Е.T. CJSC “Complex energy systems”

Nowadays gas reciprocating units (GRUs) are widely used for combined generation of thermal and electrical energy at low-capacity units. GRUs represent internal combustion engines, working on gas. A number of foreign and national manufactures produce GRUs with capacity, changing from several watts to 10 MW with heat utilization for heat-supply needs.

Part 6. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND POWER INSTALLATIONS FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

6.3. Heat and power supply units of low capacity

6.3.6. Estimation of thermal efficiency of small CHPPs

Ilyin Е.T. CJSC “Complex energy systems”

Total annual fuel saving can be used as criterion of thermal efficiency. Annual fuel saving is estimated as a difference between total annual reference fuel consumption for combined thermal and electric power supply within a year from power units, installed in boiler-houses, and annual fuel consumption for separate supply of the same quantity of thermal and electric power.

Part 6. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND POWER INSTALLATIONS FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

6.3. Heat and power supply units of low capacity

6.3.7. Influence of construction of small CHPPs on reduction of losses in electric networks

Ilyin Е.T. CJSC “Complex energy systems”

A significant factor, contributing in essential improvement of efficiency of small combined heat power plants (CHPPs), applying gas turbines and backpressure steam turbines, is reduction of electric losses in power networks. Heating boiler-houses and replacing them small CHPPs are themselves relatively large consumers of electric power.

Part 6. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND POWER INSTALLATIONS FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

6.3. Heat and power supply units of low capacity

6.3.8. Ecological efficiency as a result of replacement of heating boiler-houses with small CHPPs

Ilyin Е.T. CJSC “Complex energy systems”

The main ecological effect of replacement of heating boiler-houses with low-capacity combined heat and power plants (CHPPs) is reached due to reduction of fuel consumption, connected with increase in thermal and electric energy generation, based on cogeneration cycle, and also due to reduction of energy losses in power networks as well as additional reduction of fuel expenses.

Part 6. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND POWER INSTALLATIONS FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

6.3. Heat and power supply units of low capacity

References to § 6.3

  1. Соколов В.Я. Теплофикация и тепловые сети. М.: Издательство МЭИ, 1999.
  2. Строительные нормы и правила. СНиП 2.01.01—82. Строительная климатология и геофизика. М.: Стройиздат, 1983.
  3. Зингер Н.М. Гидравлические и тепловые режимы теплофикационных систем. М.: Энергоатомиздат, 1986.